We measure heave of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS) reservoirs: Heave monitoring helps to detect volume changes in reservoirs in a very cost-efficient way. These volume changes are caused by increases in pressure, thermal expansion (steam chambers) and dilation (“the rock crumbles”). Information about surface heave and heave inversión contributes to higher reservoir performance and safety, and also complies with regulations. We are experts in achieving the highest measurement point density over remote areas with or without trees.
Shale and tight gas formations require hydraulic fracturing (fracking) to release trapped hydrocarbons. With an increasing number of horizontal wells, the compressive load over the reservoir increases, therefore inducing subsidence and compaction during the running process.
We monitor subsidence over fracturing reservoirs for both shale and tight gas to minimize the risk to operators.
Subsidence monitoring provides timely alerts for reservoir discontinuities that help to predict induced seismicity, faults, and potential changes in hydraulic paths.
We monitor subsidence over CSG and CBM reservoirs where groundwater together with coal seam gas is extracted. Subsidence is caused by a reduction of water pressure, a compaction of corresponding geological units, and by liberation of gas from coal seams.
Subsidence monitoring is important for operators in order to be aware of surface cracking, diversion of groundwater from existing flow paths, and infrastructure damages.
Subsidence over oil and gas producing fields is caused by a reduction of formation fluid pressure and consequent compaction of reservoir rocks. Subsidence enhances existing fractures and can also créate new ones.
Subsidence monitoring helps to understand reservoir dynamics, to confirm existing faults, to identify unknown faults, and to prevent significant damage to infrastructure, including expensive well failures.
Underground storage of natural gas enables utility operators to reliably offer natural gas to consumers throughout the year in a cost-efficient manner and without interruption.
Natural gas can be stored in depleted oil and gas fields or salt formation caverns. Creep contraction of salt cavern volume during the operation period is the main cause of subsidence.
Monitoring subsidence of underground storage facilities is necessary to guarantee reservoir stability.
For CO2-sequestration projects, surface deformation monitoring with radar satellites provides a powerful tool for gaining insight into fluid fate in the subsurface.
The main objective of gas and pipeline industry is to keep pipeline systems safe and operational at all times. Radar satellite deformation monitoring enables pipeline operators to measure landslides and subsidence in the área surrounding pipelines that might put the pipeline´s stability at risk. Radar satellite images can be combined with optical (VNIR) satellite images to obtain landslide and subsidence information and therefore also information about pipeline leakage. Finally, integration of space based remote sensing with terrestrial techniques offers a low cost and highly efficient way of monitoring pipeline stability.